The sixth edition of Observation Skills for Effective Teaching focuses on observing others and incorporating the right tools, knowledge, and skills into your own practice â key principal means by which you can become an effective and professional teacher.
Using this text, you will learn to observe in the following eight areas: learning climate, classroom management, lesson clarity, instructional variety, task orientation, student engagement, student success, and higher thought processes. These eight areas have been found by researchers to be related to desirable cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes in learners. This book will also teach you how to decide what to observe, how to effectively and efficiently observe in the classroom, and how to apply what you have learned through observation to grow as a reflective teacher. In addition, the book provides methodological concepts, observation instruments, and dialogues designed to help you see and practice research-based patterns of effective teaching. Table of Contents
1. Why Observe? Goal 1: To Achieve Empathy Goal 2: To Establish Cooperative Relationships Goal 3: To Become Realistic Goal 4: To Establish Direction Goal 5: To Attain Confidence Goal 6: To Express Enthusiasm Goal 7: To Become Flexible Goal 8: To Become Self-Reliant A Beginning Thought For More Information Key Terms Activities 2. Lenses for Observing What Real Classrooms Are Like Rapid Pace of Classrooms Immediacy of Classrooms Interruptions in Classrooms Social Dynamics of Classrooms Becoming Aware of Classroom Behavior: Lenses for Self-Improvement To Become Aware of Your Own Behavior To Discover Alternative Instructional Practices and New Solutions to Instructional Problems To Determine Your Personal Teaching Strengths To Focus Your Reflections on Important Areas of Teacher Effectiveness Eight Lenses for Classroom Observation Lens 1: Consider the Learning Climate Lens 2: Focus on Classroom Management Lens 3: Look for Lesson Clarity Lens 4: Verify Variety Lens 5: Observe Task Orientation Lens 6: Examine Engagement Lens 7: Measure Student Success Lens 8: Look for Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes Challenges to Observing in Classrooms Sources of Influence on Observations from Outside Ourselves Student Ability and Achievement Classroom Characteristics Participatory and Cooperative Student Behavior Experience and Education of the Teacher School, Grade, and Subject Matter Individual and Cultural Diversity Sources of Influence on Observations from Within Ourselves Your Own Experiences in School Recent Influences and Training Who May Be Watching; Who May Find Out Choosing a Useful Lens: The Need to Structure Observations For More Information Key Terms Activities 3. Making Classroom Visits A Classroom Dialogue Reactions from Observing Ms. Koker's Classroom Observing the Learning Climate Observing Classroom Management Observing Lesson Clarity Observing Instructional Variety Observing the Teacher's Task Orientation Observing Students' Engagement in the Learning Process Observing Student Success Observing Higher Thought Processes and Performance Out-comes Preparing to Observe in Real Classrooms Activities Before the Observation Activities During the Observation Activities After the Observation For More Information Key Terms Activities 4. "Seeing" Beyond Personal Experiences and Expectations: Learning to Observe Systematically Why Observe Systematically? Methods for Observing and Recording Method 1: Narrative Reports Method 2: Rating Scales Method 3: Classroom Coding Systems For More Information Key Terms Activities 5. Considering the Learning Climate Dimensions of Learning Climate Teacher Concerns A Teacher Concerns Instrument Observing Teacher Concerns in the Classroom Warmth and Control Dimensions of Warmth and Control Behavioral Signs of Warmth and Control Social Environment Dimensions of Social Environment Observing the Social Environment of the Classroom Cultural Diversity and the Learning Climate For More Information Key Term Activities 6. Focusing on Classroom Management Dimensions of Classroom Management Practice Observing Classroom Management: A Dialogue Time to Reflect Arranging the Classroom to Meet Instructional Goals Observing the Classroom Arrangement Preestablishing and Communicating Classroom Rules Observing Classroom Rules Developing and Communicating Instructional Routines Observing Instructional Routines Establishing a System of Incentives and Consequences Observing Incentives and Consequences Using Low-Profile Classroom Management Observing Low-Profile Classroom Management Cultural Diversity and Classroom Management For More Information Key Terms Activities 7. Looking for Lesson Clarity Dimensions of Lesson Clarity Informing Learners of Lesson Objectives Observing Lesson Objectives Providing Advance Organizers Observing Advance Organizers Checking for Lesson-Relevant Prior Knowledge and Reteaching, if Necessary Observing Lesson-Relevant Prior Knowledge and Reteaching Teaching to Students' Current Level of Understanding Observing Level of Instruction Giving Directives Clearly Observing Clarity of Directives Using Examples, Illustrations, and Demonstrations Observing Use of Examples, Illustrations, and Demonstrations Reviewing and Summarizing Observing Review and Summary Techniques Cultural Diversity and Lesson Clarity Practice Observing Lesson Clarity: A Dialogue Time to Reflect For More Information Key Terms Activities 8. Verifying Instructional Variety Dimensions of Instructional Variety Practice Observing Instructional Variety: A Dialogue Time to Reflect Using Attention-Gaining Devices Observing Attention-Gaining Devices Showing Enthusiasm and Animation Observing Enthusiasm and Animation Varying Instructional Activities and Media Observing the Variation in Instructional Activities and Media Varying Rewards and Reinforcement Observing the Use of Rewards and Reinforcement Varying Types of Questions and Probes Observing Types of Questions and Probes Using Student Ideas Observing the Use of Student Ideas Cultural Diversity and Instructional Variety For More Information Key Terms Activities 9. Observing Task Orientation Dimensions of Task Orientation Practice Observing Task Orientation: A Dialogue Time to Reflect Preparing Unit and Lesson Plans That Reflect the Curriculum Observing Whether Unit and Lesson Plans Reflect the Curriculum Performing Administrative and Clerical Tasks Efficiently Observing Administrative and Clerical Tasks Preventing and Correcting Misbehavior Observing the Prevention and Correction of Misbehavior Selecting the Most Appropriate Instructional Strategy for the Objectives Taught Observing the Most Appropriate Instructional Strategy for the Objectives Taught Establishing Cycles of Review, Feedback, and Testing Observing Cycles of Review, Feedback, and Testing Cultural Diversity and Task Orientation For More Information Key Terms Activities 10. Examining Engagement in the Learning Process Dimensions of Student Engagement in the Learning Process Practice Observing Student Engagement in the Learning Process: A Dialogue Time to Reflect Eliciting the Desired Behavior Observing Eliciting Activities Providing Feedback and Correctives in a Noncritical Atmosphere Observing Feedback and Correctives Using Individual and Self-Regulated Learning Activities Observing Differentiated and Self-Regulated Learning Activities Using Meaningful Verbal Praise Observing Meaningful Verbal Praise Monitoring and Checking Observing Monitoring and Checking Cultural Diversity and Student Engagement For More Information Key Terms Activities 11. Measuring Student Success Dimensions of Student Success Practice Observing Student Success: A Dialogue Time to Reflect 225 Planning Unit and Lesson Content That Reflects Prior Learning Observing Unit and Lesson Content That Reflects Prior Learning Providing Mediated Feedback to Extend and Enhance Learning Observing Mediated Feedback to Extend and Enhance Learning Planning Units and Lessons at, or Slightly Above, Students' Current Level of Understanding Observing Instruction at, or Slightly Above, the Learners' Current Level of Understanding Making Transitions Between Lesson Content Observing Transitions Between Lesson Content Establishing Momentum That Engages Learners in the Learning Process Observing Momentum Cultural Diversity and Student Success For More Information Key Terms Activities 12. Looking for Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes Dimensions of Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes Practice Observing Higher Thought Processes and Performance Outcomes: A Dialogue Time to Think Using Collaborative and Group Activities Observing Collaborative and Group Activities Demonstrating Mental Models and Strategies for Learning Observing Mental Models and Strategies for Learning Arranging for Student Projects and Demonstrations Observing Student Projects and Demonstrations Engaging Students in Oral Performance Observing Students in Oral Performance Providing Opportunities for Students to Learn from Their Mistakes Observing Consequential Learning Activities Using Portfolios and Performance Assessments of Learning Observing Portfolios and Performance Assessments Cultural Diversity and Performance Outcomes For More Information Key Terms Activities APPENDIX: How to Determine Percentage of Observer Agreement for a Counting Observation System GLOSSARY REFERENCES NAME INDEX SUBJECT INDEX INSTRUMENT INDEXAuthor Biography
Gary Borich grew up on the south side of Chicago, where he attended Mendel High School and later taught in the public school system of Niles, Illinois. He received his doctoral degree from Indiana University, where he was director of evaluation at the Institute for Child Study. Dr. Borich is professor of Educational Psychology and a Cissy McDaniel Parker Endowed Fellow in the College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin and past member of the Board of Examiners of the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. Dr. Borichâ s other books include Effective Teaching Methods
, Seventh Edition; Educational Assessment for the Elementary and Middle School Classroom
, Second Edition (with M. Tombari); Clearly Outstanding: Making Each Day Count in Your Classroom
; Becoming a Teacher: An Inquiring Dialogue for the Beginning Teacher
; Educational Psychology: A Contemporary Approach
, Second Edition (with M. Tombari); Educational Testing and Measurement
, Ninth Edition (with T. Kubiszyn); and The Appraisal of Teaching: Concepts and Process; and Teacher Behavior and Pupil Self Concept
. Dr. Borich lives in Austin, Texas, with his wife, Kathy, and children, Brandy and Damon.