In the present monograph, we offer current insights into polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arthritis. Both diseases are typical for advanced age, and their incidences increase with aging. Both diseases are a center point of interest not only for rheu- tologists, gerontologists, ophthalmologists or neurologists, but also for general prac- tioners. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment, mainly with glucocorticoids can save one of the most precious senses-vision. Damage to other organs (heart, aorta, co- nary arteries, liver, lungs, kidneys), which are supplied by the arteries affected by ischemic syndrome in the setting of giant cell arthritis, has serious consequences as well. Late diagnosis of giant cell arthritis can have fatal consequences for affected patients. It is a matter of fact that the human population is aging. Therefore, more attention has to be paid not only to diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of rheumatic d- eases in elderly, but also to their genetic, immunologic, endocrinologic, chronobiologic mechanisms, and state-of-the-art diagnostic modalities. I am convinced that the int- disciplinary research of the diseases will allow us to diagnose and treat the rheumatic diseases even faster and more effectively in the future.