"The Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth" brings together the science and technology of growing crystals, defect characterization and techniques, and understanding the defect formation including defects modelling. This unique effort will provide users with fundamental understanding of crystal growth and defects with the latest instrumentation/ techniques available both for crystal fabrication and defects. Understanding in this rapidly advancing field deals with three main areas: crystal growth and defect formation, growth methods, and various techniques used in characterization.
Table of Contents
Part A: Fundamentals of Crystal Growth and Defect FormationChap. 1. An Overview of Crystal Growth Techniques and Characterization (G. Dhanaraj, K. Byrappa, V. Prasad, M. Dudley)Chap. 2. Nucleation at Surfaces, (I. Markov)Chap. 3. Morphology of Crystals Grown from Solution (F. Abbona, D. Aquilano)Chap. 4. Generation and Propagation of Defects During Crystal Growth (H. Klapper)Chap. 5. Defects Formation and Morphology in Crystal Growth (I. Sunagawa) Part B: Crystal Growth from the MeltChap. 6. Defect Formation During Crystal Growth from the Melt (P. Rudolph)Chap. 7. Indium Phosphide Bulk Crystal Growth using Applied Magnetic Fields (D. Bliss)Chap. 8.Pedestal Growth and Modeling of Czochralski Pulling of Silicon Crystals (K. Kakimoto)Chap. 9.Czochralski Growth of Oxide Photorefractive Crystals (E. Dieguez, J.L.Plaza, M. D. Aggarwal, A. K. Batra)Chap. 10. Vertical Bridgman Growth of Semiconductors (P. Dutta)Chap. 11. Growth of Antimony-Based Narrow-Bandgap III-V Semiconductor Crystals (H.L. Bhat, V. Dixit)Chap. 12. Defects in Oxide Crystals Grown by The Optical Floating Zone Technique (H. Dabkowska, A. Dabkowski)Chap. 13. Laser Pedestal Growth of Crystals (M.R. Barsi Andreeta, C. Hernandes, Brazil)Chap. 14. Synthesis of Refractory Materials by the Skull Melting Technique (V.V. Osiko, E.E. Lomonova, M.A. Borik)Chap. 15. Crystal Growth of Laser Host Fluorides and Oxides (J. Xu, H. Li)Chap. 16. Shaped Crystal Growth (V. Tatartchenko) Part C: Solution Growth of CrystalsChap. 17. Growth and Characteristics of Bulk Single Crystals Grown on Earth and in Microgravity (M.D. Aggarwal, A.K. Batra, R.B. Lal, B. G. Penn, D.O. Frazier)Chap. 18. Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals (K. Byrappa)Chap. 19. Growth of Semiconductor Crystals by Hydrothermal Techniques (M. Callahan, Q.S. Chen)Chap. 20. Stoichiometry and Domain Structure of KTP Nonlinear Optical Crystals (M. Roth)Chap. 21. Growth and Characterization of Nonlinear and Laser Crystals (J:J. Caravajal, F. Diaz)Chap. 22. Growth and Characterization of KDP and its Analogs (S.-L. Wang, X. Sun, X.-T. Tao) Part D: Crystal Gowth from Vapor Chap. 23. Vapor Growth of Silicon Carbide for Electronics Applications (G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley)Chap. 24. Growth of Aluminum Nitride Crystals (Z. Sitar)Chap. 25. Growth and Characterization of Organic Semiconductor Crystals (C. Kloc, J. Pflaum)Chap. 26. Growth of Bulk GaN with HVPE (B. Monemar, C. Hemmingsson)Chap. 27. Vapor Growth of Crystals (R. Dhanasekaran) Part E: Epitaxial Growth and Thin FilmsChap. 28. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Layers (I. Bhat)Chap. 29. Liquid-Phase Electroepitaxy (S. Dost)Chap. 30. Epitaxial Overgrowth and Defect Reduction in Semiconductors (Z. R. Zytkiewicz)Chap. 31. Liquid-Phase Epitaxy of High-Temperature Superconductors and Langasites (C. Klemenz)Chap. 32. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (S. Sivanathan)Chap. 33. Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of Diluted Nitrides and of Arsenide Quantum Dots (U. Pohl)Chap. 34. Formation and their Properties of Strained SiGe Heterostructures (Y. Shiraki, A. Sakai)Chap. 35. Pulsed Laser and Pulsed Electron Deposition (M. Strikovski, J. Kim, S. Kolagani) Part F: Modeling of Crystal Growth and DefectsChap. 36. Convections and Control in Bridgman Crystal Growth (C. T Lan)Chap. 37. Design and Modeling of Vapor Phase Growth of GaN (D. Cai, L. Zheng, H. Zhang)Chap. 38. Defect Dynamics in Growing Silicon Crystals (M. Kulkarni)Chap. 39. Defect Formation in Bulk Crystal Growth: Models and Theories (P. Srinivas, V. Prasad)Chap. 40. Mass and Heat Transport in Bridgman-Stockbarger and Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth Systems (T. F. George, L. Braescu, S. Balint) Part G: Defects Characterization and TechniquesChap. 41. X-Ray Scattering in Semiconductor Wafer Characterization (P. Fewster)Chap. 42. Defect Analysis Using X-Ray Topography (B. Raghothamachar, G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley)Chap. 43. Chemical Etching Studies on Semiconductor Crystals (W.L. Weyher)Chap. 44. TEM and SEM Studies of Crystal Defects (B. Jie, M. Dudley)Chap. 45. EPR Characterization of Defects (M.E. Zvanut) Chap. 46. Defect Characterization in Semiconductors (F. Tuomisto) Part H: Special Topics in Crystals GrowthChap. 47. New Trends in Protein Crystal Growth Methods (A. Moreno)Chap. 48. Crystallization from Gels (S. Natarajan, S.N. Kalkura)Chap. 49. In-Situ Structural Studies of Crystal Growth in Titanium Silicates (A.J. Celestian, J.B. Parise, A. Clearfield)Chap. 50. Modern Single Crystal Scintillation Materials (M. Nikl, A. Vedda, V. V. Laguta)Chap. 51. Photovoltaic Materials (M. Narayanan, T.Ciszec, T. Buonassisi)Chap. 52. Modern Wafer Manufacturing Using Wiresaw (I. Kao, C. Chung, R. M. Rodriguez) Acknowledgements.- About the Authors.- Subject Index
Dr. Govindhan Dhanaraj is a Research Professor at Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY. He specializes in crystal growth of semiconductors and optical crystals, and defect evaluation using X-ray and chemical etching techniques. He earned a PhD degree from Indian Institute of Science, where he worked as a senior scientist and established an advanced Crystal Growth Laboratory at a National Laboratory presently known as Rajaramanna Center for Advanced Technology in India. He also was a Research Assistant Professor at Hampton University, VA involving himself in crystal growth research and teaching graduates and undergraduates. Dr. Dhanaraj has about 20 years of research experience on bulk and epitaxial crystal growth and characterization of optical and semiconductor crystals. Based on his accomplishments in crystal growth he has been awarded with the most prestigious Extraordinary Ability Category O1 VISA status by United States BCIS. Dr. K. Byrappa is a Senior Professor at the Department of Geology, University of Mysore. He received his PhD degree and postdoctoral training from Moscow. He has established one of the well-known laboratories for Hydrothermal Crystal Growth and has authored more than 140 research articles and an advanced crystal-growth resource book entitled Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology (2001). He also edited Crystal Growth Technology (2003) and serves as an Associate Editor of Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials. Dr. Vishwanath Prasad is the Dean and Distinguished Professor of College of Engineering, Florida University. He established a premier Crystal Growth and Process Modeling Laboratory at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University. Dr. Prasad served as a director for AFOSR/DARPA Consortium for Crystal Growth Research consisting of six leading institutions in the United States and has about 200 research publications to his credit. He taught several courses on Process Modeling, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer. Dr. Michael Dudley is a Professor and Chairperson of the Department of Materials Science at Stony Brook University. He specializes in defect characterization of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers using X-ray topography as well as transmission electron microscopy. He is the Head of Synchrotron X-ray Topography Defect Analysis Laboratory, and he is also the Director of the National Consortium for Synchrotron X-ray Topography for Defect Analysis. He has authored more than 230 refereed research articles on crystal defects and characterization. He teaches courses on X-ray diffraction, structure materials, imperfection in crystals etc. to graduates and undergraduates.