The first book in two decades to address this multi-faceted field, The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides provides the most up-to-date information on insecticide classification, formulation, mode of action, resistance, metabolism, environmental fate, and regulatory legislation. The book draws on the author's groundbreaking research in insect detoxification. It discusses mechanisms at the molecular level such as specific enzymes that contribute to insecticide resistance, the modification of which can change insecticide susceptibility and influence host plant selections in phytophagous insects. Beginning with a general introduction, eleven chapters integrate classical toxicology with physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology to present a comprehensive look at the field. The book discusses the demand and formulation of pesticides and describes each type from dusts and powders to baits and aerosols. It classifies insecticides by target, chemical compound, and mechanism; evaluates toxicity testing procedures; explains pesticide uptake, mode of action, and metabolism; and explores species differences, resistance, and interactions.
It also considers pesticides in the environment and federal and state regulatory legislation and enforcement. A long-awaited, state-of-the-science review on insect toxicology, this indispensable book brings you up-to-date on the many aspects and implications of pesticide use and provides the necessary background and platform from which to conduct future research.
Table of Contents
The Need for Pesticides and Their Pattern of Use The Need for Pesticides Pattern of Use Pesticide Economics The Formulation of Pesticides Types of Formulation The NonPesticidal Ingredients of Formulations Pesticide Application Equipment Pesticide Laws and Regulations The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act The Food Quality Protection Act State Laws Enforcement The Classification of Insecticides Classification of Insecticides Evaluation of Toxicity Testing Procedures Tests with Insects Tests with Higher Animals Probit Analysis Source of Variability in Dose-Response Tests The Use of Log Dosage-Probit (LDP) Lines Appendix 5.1: An example of probit analysis using the SAS system The Uptake of Insecticides Penetration of Insecticides Through the Insect Cuticle Entry via the Mouth Uptake via the Spiracles The Mode of Action of Insecticides Insecticides Affecting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Insecticides Affecting Calcium Channels Insecticides Inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase Insecticides Interfering with GABA-gated Chloride Channels Insecticides that Bind to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Insecticides Affecting Octopamine Receptors Insecticides Interfering with Respiration Insecticides Acting as Alimentary Toxins Insecticides Affecting Chitin Biosynthesis or Cuticle Sclerotization Insecticides Acting as Juvenile Hormone Mimics Insecticides Acting as Ecdysone Agonists, or Blocking Molting Hormone Activity Insecticides Abrading or Disrupting Insect Cuticle The Mode of Action of Acaricides Principles of Pesticide Metabolism Phase I Reactions Phase II Reactions Metabolic Pathways of Selected Insecticides Species Differences and Other Phenomena Associated with the Metabolism of Xenobiotics Species Differences in Detoxification Enzyme Activity Effect of Age and Sex on Enzyme Activity The Specificity of Detoxification Enzymes Selective Toxicity Synergism and Antagonism Enzyme Induction Insecticide Resistance Insecticide Resistance The Genetics of Resistance Mechanisms of Resistance Interaction Phenomena Rate of Development of Resistance Management of Resistance Pesticides in the Environment Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Photodegradation of Pesticides Pesticides and the Food Chain Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Wildlife