Both a rhetoric and reader, "The Well-Crafted Argument, Fourth Edition", equips you with a comprehensive set of skills necessary to construct powerful and meaningful arguments across the disciplines.
Table of Contents
PART I: THE RHETORIC OF ARGUMENT. 1. The Nature and Process of Argument. Why Argue? What Is an Argument? What Is an Arguable Thesis? Using Evidence in Argument. Communicating with a Purpose. The Process of Composing an Argument.Using Appeals in Argument. Organizing the Argument. Drafting the Argument. Common Problems in Composing an Argument and Ways to Resolve Them. James Paul Gee, "High Score Education". Revising the Argument: A Form of Reevaluation. Reading to Revise. Visual Aids as Tools for Argumentative Writing. Steven Waldman and John C. Green, "Tribal Relations". Herb Block, "The Cartoon". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 2. Methods of Critical Reading. Reading as a Construction of Meaning. Active Versus Passive Reading. Reading as a Writer of Arguments. Writing a Summary. Melissa Slager, "Death to the Classics!". Reading with a Pencil. Samuel Lipman, "Say No to Trash". Reading Visuals in Arguments. Joseph J. Feeney, S.J., "Philosophers, Theologians, Post Modern Students: Why They Need Each Other". Becoming a Highly Motivated Reader. Reading Responsibly. "High Noon" (editorial). Active Reading as Shared Reading. Using the Modes of Argument as a Schema for Analysis. The Importance of Open-Mindedness when Reading. Galileo Galilei, "Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 3. Using the Classical Model in Your Arguments. Argument in the Ancient World. The Classical Model of Argument. John Guillebaud and Pip Hayes, "Population Growth and Climate Change". Reinforcing Aristotelian Appeals with Visuals. Anti-Defamation League, "School Vouchers: The Wrong Choice for Public Education". Kurt L. Schmoke, "Why School Vouchers Can Help Inner-City Children". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 4. Using the Toulmin Model in Your Arguments. The Toulmin Model of Argument. Virginia Woolf, "Professions for Women". The Toulmin Model in Action. Student Essay: Daniel Neal, "Tobacco: Ignorance Is No Longer an Excuse". Organizing Your Argument Using the Toulmin Model. Thomas Jefferson, "Declaration of Independence". Reinforcing the Toulmin Model with Visuals. Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 5. Using the Rogerian Model in Your Arguments. The Rogerian Model of Argument. Organizing Your Argument Using the Rogerian Model. Kimberly Shearer Palmer, "Let's Talk About Sexual Harassment in Middle School". Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail". Student Essay: Daniela Gibson, "Who Owns Our Children?". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 6. Reasoning: Methods and Fallacies. Argumentative Reasoning. The Nature of Fallacies. Strategies of Reasoning. Errors in Reasoning: A Taxonomy. Max Shulman, "Love Is a Fallacy". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 7. Researching Your Argument. The Three Faces of Research. Searching Before You Research: Taking a Mental Inventory. Focusing Your Research for Argumentative Essays. Formulating a Strong Thesis. Researching Using the Internet. Useful Types of Internet Sources. Searching on the Web. Useful Websites for Writers of Argument. Researching Using Print Resources. Gathering Information from Email, Telephone Conversations, Interviews, and Surveys. Taking Effective Research Notes. The Role of Serendipity in Research. Evaluating Your Sources. Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism. Incorporating Outside Sources into Your Argument. Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. 8. Documenting Your Sources: MLA and APA Styles. Citation of Source Material: A Rationale. Which Documentation Style to Use? A Guide to MLA Documentation Style. Presenting Quoted Material. Index for Citing Sources: MLA Style. Using Author/Page In-Text Citations. Preparing the MLA List of Works Cited. Sample Student Paper: MLA Documentation Format. Daniela Gibson, "Why We Should Punish". A Guide to APA Documentation Style. Presenting Quoted Material. Index for Citing Sources: APA Style. Using Author/Year In-Text Citations. Preparing the APA List of References. Sample Student Paper: APA Documentation Format. Jarrett Green, "Child Molestation: Anything but Your Typical Crime". Chapter Summary. Checklist. Writing Projects. PART II: READING CLUSTERS. Cluster 1: Athletics and Academics: How Do They Benefit Each Other? Introduction. Are Student Athletes Really Students? Edward Koren, "Game Score, Test Scores" (editorial cartoon). Dave Newhouse, "Brawn & Brains: Student Athletes Get a Bum Rap". Herbert D. Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin V. Covington, "Academic Motivation and the Student Athlete". John R. Gerdy, "Is Athletics Meeting Its Purpose?". John R. Gerdy, "For True Reform, Athletic Scholarships Must Go". Student Essay: Scott Klausner, "Academic Performance of Student Athletes". Issues for Further Research: The Intrinsic Value of College Athletics. Student Visual Essay: Kelly Ryan, "The Faces of Sports". Student Essay: Kelly Ryan, "Play for Pride, Not for Pay". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 2: Biomedical Research: What Role Should Ethics Play? Introduction. Can Biomedical Issues Be Separated from Politics? Dave Coverly, "Political Science/Politicized Science" (cartoon). Arthur Caplan, "Bioengineering and Self-Improvement". Robert P. George, "thics, Politics, and Genetic Knowledge". Samuel Hensley, "Designer Babies: One Step Closer". Issues for Further Research: The Stem Cell Debate. Edwin F. O'Brien, "Science Needs Ethics". Karen Rothenberg, Dr. Curt Civin, and Sandy Rosenberg, "Stem Cell Scientists Employ Highest Ethics". John W. Donohue, "The Stem Cell Debate". Bonnie Steinbock, "The Morality of Killing Human Embryos". Issues for Further Research: Genetic Engineering . Editors of Scientific American, "The Need to Regulate 'Designer Babies'". Michael Crichton, "Patenting Life". Clare Kittredge, "A Question of Chimeras". Margaret Atwood, "OrganInc Farms" (excerpt from "Oryx and Crake"). Student Essay: Nikolay Balbyshev, "Priorities of Gene Therapy". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 3: Globalization: What Are the Key Issues Concerning U.S.-Foreign Relations? Introduction. What Effects Could the Patriot Act Have on Individual Liberties? Mike Luckovich, "We've Lost Control of Our Borders" (editorial cartoon). Thomas L. Friedman, "While I Was Sleeping" (excerpt from "The World Is Flat"). Darrin Bell, "Candorville" (comic strip). James Bamford, "Big Brother Is Listening". Mary Minow, "The USA PATRIOT Act and Patron Privacy on Library Internet Terminals". Erica Naone, "RFID's Security Problem". Issues for Further Research: Immigration Policy and National Security. Monica Campbell, "Mexicans See Insult, Danger in Border Plan". Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), "Immigration and National Security: A Checklist of Unfinished Reforms". Student Essay: Sara Vakulskas, "The Patriot Act". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 4: Intellectual Property: How Should IP Rights Be Protected? Introduction. How Might the Downloading of Music Files Best Be Regulated? Lloyd Dangle, "Troubletown" (editorial cartoon). U.S. Newswire, "Jim Rogan Speaks on Intellectual Property Rights: 'We Have to Treat Theft as Theft'". Lawrence Lessig, "Protecting Music". Janis Ian, "The Internet Debacle: An Alternate View". Student Essay: Kate Guarante, "The Cost of Regeneration". Benny Evangelista, "Penalties Frighten Music Traders: Survey Reports Copyright Laws Are Not Daunting". Student Essay: Powell Fraser, "Why I've Stopped Sharing Music". Student Essay: Nathan Salha, "A Language All Their Own". Issues for Further Research: Copyright Term Limits. Jeffrey Rosen, "Mouse Trap: Disney's Copyright Conquest". Jason Brooks, "Needed: Sane IP Laws". Issues for Further Research: Plagiarism. Deborah R. Gerhardt, "The Rules of Attribution". Ryan Kennedy, "Digital Plagiarism: The Role of Society and Technology". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 5: Media Regulation: What Are the Issues? Introduction. How Should the First Amendment's Freedom of Speech Guarantee Be Applied? Patrick Chappatte, "Internet and Censorship" (editorial cartoon). Rodney Smolla, "Speech Overview". Martin P. Golding, "Campus Speech Issues". Student Essay: Quentin Clark, "Speech Codes: An Insult to Education and a Threat to Our Future". Issues for Further Research: Book Banning. Kurt Vonnegut Jr., "A Letter to the Chairman of the Drake School Board". Student Essay: Kiley Strong, "The Myth of Book Censoring Within the American Educational System". Student Essay: Gaby Caceres, "Censorship of Books for Public High Schools: When Necessary, When Not". Issues for Further Research: Effects of Media Violence. Cheryl Arvidson, "Statement Linking Media Violence to Violence in Kids Draws Criticism". Mike Oppenheim, "TV Isn't Violent Enough". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 6: Multicultural Learning: What Are the Priorities? Introduction. Who, If Anyone, Benefits from Multicultural Education? Signe Wilkinson, "Family Tree" (cartoon). Breea C. Willingham, "Perspectives: Improving Race Relations One Journalism Class at a Time". Leslie Marmon Silko, "Language and Literature from a Pueblo Indian Perspective". Student Essay: Chris Garber, "The Importance of Multicultural Education in Global Society". Issues for Further Research: Bilingual Education. John Darkow, "English: The National Language" (editorial cartoon). Monte Wolverston, "Linginstic Police" (editorial cartoon). Kendra Hamilton, "Bilingual or Immersion?". Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia Collier, "Two Languages Are Better Than One". Richard Rodriguez, "Speaking a Public Language". Student Essay: Regina Patzelt, "Education in English: The Proven Benefits of a Bilingual Academic Program". Student Essay: Yung Le, "English First". Issues for Further Research: Improving Literacy. Ann Russell, "Literacy Development for Students with No Voice: Scheme and Schema". Clarena Larotta and Ysabel Ramirez, "Literary Benefits for Latina/o Parents Engaged in a Spanish Literary Project". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 7: Public Identity and Technology: How Is the Internet Influencing Society? Introduction. Roz Chast, "The I.M.s of Romeo and Juliet" (cartoon). National Council of Teachers of English, "Literacy Learning for the 21st Century [NCTE Policy Brief]". Phillip Britt, "Identity Thieves Hit a New Low". Issues for Further Research: Internet Dating. Adam Arvidsson, "'Quality Singles': Internet Dating and the Work of Fantasy". Nicole Ellison, Rebecca Heino, and Jennifer Gibbs, "Managing Impressions Online: Self-Presentation Processes in the Online Dating Environment". Issues for Further Research: Online Social Networking. Jonathan Zimmerman, "Hooked on Facebook". Student Essay: Jillian Lenahan, "MySpace Addictions--No Need for Rehab". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 8: Science and Religion: If Common Ground Exists, Where Does It Lie? Introduction.What Is the Basis of the Conflict Between Science and Religion? Johnny Hart, "B.C." (comic strip). Steven Weinberg, "A Designer Universe?". Chet Raymo, "Miracles and Explanations". J.T. Barbarese, "Fossils". Cynthia Bass, "Great Minds Needn't Think Alike to be Right: Advocates of Science and Religion Can Co-Exist". Student Essay: Kareem Raad, "Can One Compare Science and Religion?". Issues for Further Research: Teaching Human Origins in the Public Schools. David Ludden, "Teaching Evolution at a Christian College". Lawrence M. Krauss and Richard Dawkins, "Should Science Speak To Faith?". Student Essay: Patrick Green, "The Battle over Creationism". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Cluster 9: Masterpieces of Argument: What Do They Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion? Introduction. Nick Ut, "Tragedy of Vietnam" (photograph). Plato, "Allegory of the Cave". Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress". Jonathan Swift, "A Modest Proposal". Jonathan Edwards, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". Elizabeth Cady Stanton, "Keynote Address at the First Woman's Rights Convention". Frederick Douglass, "I Hear the Mournful Wail of Millions". Rachel Carson, "The Obligation to Endure". Stanley Milgram, "The Perils of Obedience". Carolyn G. Heilbrun, "The Character of Hamlet's Mother". Connections among the Clusters. Writing Projects. For Further Reading. Glossary of Rhetorical Terms. Index of Authors and Titles. Index of Terms.