This book explores the current state of Venezuelan politics and relations with the United States. Under the populist rule of President Hugo Chavez, first elected in 1998 and most recently re-elected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new constitution and unicameral legislature, and a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, the fourth major supplier of foreign oil to the United States, but there has been friction with the Chavez government. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. Declining co-operation on anti-drug and anti-terrorism efforts has also been a concern. Among other topics, this book will analyse the background, goals and challenges of the Chavez administration. Some changes for U.S. policy towards Venezuela and Latin America will be suggested as well.