The primary goal of World Civilizations is to present a truly global history--from the development of agriculture and herding to the present. Using a unique periodization, this book divides the main periods of human history according to changes in the nature and extent of global contacts. This global world history text emphasizes the major stages in the interactions among different peoples and societies, while at the same time assessing the development of major societies. Encompassing social and cultural as well as political and economic history, the book examines key civilizations in world history. World Civilizations balances this discussion of independent developments in the world's major civilizations with comparative analysis of the results of global contact.
Table of Contents
Maps xi Preface xiii Supplements xix About the Authors xxi Prologue xxiii PART I EARLY HUMAN SOCIETIES, 2.5 MILLION--1000 B.C.E.: ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT 2 CHAPTER 1 The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization 10 Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers 11 DOCUMENT: Tales of the Hunt: Paleolithic Cave Paintings as History 15 Agriculture and the Origins of Civilization: The Neolithic Revolution 17 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Representations of Women in Early Art 21 The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilization 22 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Idea of Civilization in World Historical Perspective 24 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Neolithic Revolution as the Basis for World History 26 Further Readings 26 On the Web 26 CHAPTER 2 The Rise of Civilization in the Middle East and Africa 28 Early Civilization in Mesopotamia 28 Later Mesopotamian Civilization: A Series of Conquests 33 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mesopotamia in Maps 34 DOCUMENT: Hammurabi's Law Code 35 Ancient Egypt 36 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Women in Patriarchal Societies 38 Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared 40 Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean 41 The Issue of Heritage 44 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Early Civilizations and the World 45 Further Readings 45 On the Web 46 CHAPTER 3 Asia's First Civilizations: India and China 48 The Indus Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization 50 Aryan Incursions and Early Aryan Society in India 53 DOCUMENT: Aryan Poetry in Praise of a War Horse 56 A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China 56 iv Contents The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance 60 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Nomadic Contacts and the Endurance of Asia's First Civilizations 62 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mapping the Rise of Civilizations 64 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Contrasting Legacies: Harappan and Early Chinese Civilizations 66 Further Readings 66 On the Web 66 PART II THE CLASSICAL PERIOD, 1000 B.C.E.--500 C.E.: UNITING LARGE REGIONS 72 CHAPTER 4 Unification and the Consolidation of Civilization in China 80 Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou 81 DOCUMENT: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools 85 The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity 85 The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China's Classical Age 89 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Xunzi and the Shift from Ritual Combat to "Real"War 90 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Capital Designs and Patterns of Political Power 96 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Classical China and the World 100 Further Readings 100 On the Web 101 CHAPTER 5 Classical Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East 102 The Persian Empire: A New Perspective in the Middle East 104 The Political Character of Classical Greece 106 The Hellenistic Period 110 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Political Rituals in Persia 113 Greek and Hellenistic Culture 113 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Defining Social History 114 Patterns of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Society 118 DOCUMENT: The Power of Greek Drama 119 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Persia, Greece, and the World 121 Further Readings 122 On the Web 122 CHAPTER 6 Religious Rivalries and India's Golden Age 124 The Age of Brahman Dominance 125 An Era of Widespread Social Change 127 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Inequality as a Social Norm 129 Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism 132 The Rise and Decline of the Mauryas 134 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page iv Contents v Brahmanical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age 136 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Pattern of Trade in the Ancient Eurasian World 138 Intensifying Caste and Gender Inequities and Gupta Decline 141 DOCUMENT: A Guardian's Farewell Speech to a Young Woman About to Be Married 142 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: India and the Wider World 143 Further Readings 144 On the Web 144 CHAPTER 7 Rome and Its Empire 146 The Development of Rome's Republic 147 Roman Culture 151 DOCUMENT: Rome and a Values Crisis 153 How Rome Ruled Its Empire 153 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Religions in Rome 156 The Evolution of Rome's Economic and Social Structure 156 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Classical Civilizations in Comparative Perspective 158 The Origins of Christianity 159 The Decline of Rome 161 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Rome and the World 162 Further Readings 162 On the Web 163 CHAPTER 8 The Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas 164 Origins of American Societies 166 Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica 171 DOCUMENT: Deciphering the Maya Glyphs 175 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Different Times for Different Peoples 176 The Peoples to the North 177 The Andean World 180 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Ancient Agriculture 183 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: American Civilizations and the World 184 Further Readings 184 On the Web 185 CHAPTER 9 The Spread of Civilizations and the Movement of Peoples 186 The Spread of Civilization in Africa 188 DOCUMENT: Myths of Origin 194 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Language as a Historical Source 198 Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations 198 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Varieties of Human Adaptation and the Potential for Civilization 204 The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan 204 Political and Social Change 208 The Scattered Societies of Polynesia 209 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Emerging Cultures 214 Further Readings 214 On the Web 215 CHAPTER 10 The End of the Classical Era:World History in Transition, 200--700 C.E. 216 Upheavals in Eastern and Southern Asia 217 DOCUMENT: The Popularization of Buddhism 219 The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 221 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Problem of Decline and Fall 225 The Development and Spread of World Religions 226 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Religious Geography 229 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Late Classical Period and the World 230 Further Readings 230 On the Web 231 PART III THE POSTCLASSICAL PERIOD, 500--1450: NEW FAITH AND NEW COMMERCE 236 CHAPTER 11 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam 244 Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World 245 The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam 250 The Arab Empire of the Umayyads 253 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Civilization and Gender Relationships 260 From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abbasid Era 262 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mosque as a Symbol of Islamic Civilization 264 DOCUMENT: The Thousand and One Nights as a Mirror of Elite Society in the Abbasid Era 266 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Early Islam and the World 267 Further Readings 268 On the Web 268 CHAPTER 12 Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia 270 The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras 271 DOCUMENT: Ibn Khaldun on the Rise and Decline of Empires 276 An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements 276 The Coming of Islam to South Asia 280 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Patterns of Islam's Global Expansions 281 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Conversion and Accommodation in the Spread of World Religions 286 The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia 288 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Islam: A Bridge Between Worlds 290 Further Readings 290 On the Web 290 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page v vi Contents CHAPTER 13 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam 292 African Societies: Diversity and Similarities 293 Kingdoms of the Grasslands 297 DOCUMENT: The Great Oral Tradition and the Epic of Sundiata 300 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Architecture of Faith 303 The Swahili Coast of East Africa 303 Peoples of the Forest and Plains 305 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Two Transitions in the History of World Population 306 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Internal Development and Global Contacts 310 Further Readings 310 On the Web 311 CHAPTER 14 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe 312 Civilization in Eastern Europe 312 The Byzantine Empire 314 VISUALIZING THE PAST:Women and Power in Byzantium 317 The Split Between Eastern and Western Christianity 318 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundaries 321 The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe 321 The Emergence of Kievan Rus' 323 DOCUMENT: Russia Turns to Christianity 324 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Eastern Europe and the World 326 Further Readings 326 On the Web 326 CHAPTER 15 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe 328 Stages of Postclassical Development 329 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Peasant Labor 331 DOCUMENT: European Travel: A Monk Visits Jerusalem 337 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Civilization 339 Western Culture in the Postclassical Era 340 Changing Economic and Social Forms in the Postclassical Centuries 342 The Decline of the Medieval Synthesis 346 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Medieval Europe and the World 348 Further Readings 349 On the Web 349 CHAPTER 16 The Americas on the Eve of Invasion 350 Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000--1500 C.E. 351 Aztec Society in Transition 357 DOCUMENT: Aztec Women and Men 359 Twantinsuyu:World of the Incas 360 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Archeological Evidence of Political Practices 362 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The "Troubling" Civilizations of the Americas 364 The Other Peoples of the Americas 367 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Americas and the World 370 Further Readings 370 On the Web 370 CHAPTER 17 Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties 372 Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Era 373 DOCUMENT: Ties That Bind: Paths to Power 378 Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song 380 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age 384 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Footbinding as a Marker of Male Dominance 388 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Artistic Expression and Social Values 390 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: China's World Role 392 Further Readings 392 On the Web 393 CHAPTER 18 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam 394 Japan: The Imperial Age 395 The Era of Warrior Dominance 400 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Comparing Feudalisms 402 Korea: Between China and Japan 406 Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam 409 VISUALIZING THE PAST:What Their Portraits Tell Us: Gatekeeper Elites and the Persistence of Civilizations 412 DOCUMENT: Literature as a Mirror of the Exchanges Between Civilized Centers 415 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: In the Orbit of China: The East Asian Corner of the Global System 415 Further Readings 416 On the Web 416 CHAPTER 19 The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur 418 The Transcontinental Empire of Chinggis Khan 420 DOCUMENT: A European Assessment of the Virtues and Vices of the Mongols 424 The Mongol Drive to the West 426 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Mongol Empire as a Bridge Between Civilizations 429 The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History 430 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Global Eclipse of the Nomadic Warrior Culture 434 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Mongol Linkages 436 Further Readings 437 On the Web 437 CHAPTER 20 The World in 1450: Changing Balance ofWorld Power 438 Key Changes in the Middle East 439 The Rise of the West 442 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page vi Contents vii VISUALIZING THE PAST: Population Trends 443 DOCUMENT: Bubonic Plague 444 Western Expansion: The Experimental Phase 447 Outside the World Network 448 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Problem of Ethnocentrism 450 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: 1450 and the World 451 Further Readings 451 On the Web 452 PART IV THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD, 1450--1750: THEWORLD SHRINKS 458 CHAPTER 21 The World Economy 466 The West's First Outreach:Maritime Power 466 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Causation and the West's Expansion 471 Toward a World Economy 472 VISUALIZING THE PAST:West Indian Slaveholding 475 Colonial Expansion 477 DOCUMENT:Western Conquerors: Tactics and Motives 478 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The World Economy-- And the World 483 Further Readings 484 On the Web 484 CHAPTER 22 The Transformation of the West, 1450--1750 486 The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce, 1450--1650 487 The Commercial Revolution 492 The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change 495 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Versailles 497 Political Change 497 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Elites and Masses 498 The West by 1750 500 DOCUMENT: Controversies About Women 501 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Europe and the World 504 Further Readings 504 On the Web 505 CHAPTER 23 The Rise of Russia 506 Russia's Expansionist Politics Under the Tsars 506 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Multinational Empires 510 Russia's First Westernization, 1690--1790 511 DOCUMENT: The Nature of Westernization 513 Themes in Early Modern Russian History 516 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Oppressed Peasants 517 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and the World 519 Further Readings 519 On the Web 520 CHAPTER 24 Early Latin America 522 Spaniards and Portuguese: From Reconquest to Conquest 524 DOCUMENT: A Vision from the Vanquished 529 The Destruction and Transformation of Indigenous Societies 532 Colonial Economies and Governments 533 THINKING HISTORICALLY: An Atlantic History? 534 Brazil: The First Plantation Colony 537 Multiracial Societies 540 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Race or Culture? A Changing Society 541 The 18th-Century Reforms 542 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Latin American Civilization and the World Context 547 Further Readings 547 On the Web 548 CHAPTER 25 Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade 550 Africa and the Creation of an Atlantic System 551 The Atlantic Slave Trade 552 African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade 557 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Slavery and Human Society 558 White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa 563 The African Diaspora 566 DOCUMENT: An African's Description of the Middle Passage 567 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Cloth of Kings in an Atlantic Perspective 569 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Africa and the African Diaspora in World Context 571 Further Readings 571 On the Web 572 CHAPTER 26 The Muslim Empires 574 The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders 575 DOCUMENT: An Islamic Traveler Laments the Muslims' Indifference to Europe 583 The Shi'a Challenge of the Safavids 583 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Gunpowder Empires and the Shifting Balance of Global Power 586 The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India 590 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Art as A Window into the Past: Paintings and History in Mughal India 594 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Gunpowder Empires and the Restoration of the Islamic Bridge Between Civilizations 597 Further Readings 598 On the Web 599 CHAPTER 27 Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change 600 The Asian Trading World and the Coming of the Europeans 602 Ming China: A Global Mission Refused 609 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page vii viii Contents DOCUMENT: Exam Questions as a Mirror of Chinese Values 611 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The Great Ships of the Ming Expeditions that Crossed the Indian Ocean 615 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Means and Motives for Overseas Expansion: Europe and China Compared 616 Fending Off the West: Japan's Reunification and the First Challenge 617 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: An Age of Eurasian Protoglobalization 621 Further Readings 621 On the Web 622 PART V THE DAWN OF THE INDUSTRIAL AGE, 1750--1914 628 CHAPTER 28 The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750--1914 636 The Age of Revolution 637 VISUALIZING THE PAST: The French Revolution in Cartoons 640 The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850--1914 644 DOCUMENT: Protesting the Industrial Revolution 646 Cultural Transformations 649 Western Settler Societies 652 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Two Revolutions: Industrial and Atlantic 653 Diplomatic Tensions and World War I 656 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Industrial Europe and the World 657 Further Readings 658 On the Web 658 CHAPTER 29 Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order 660 The Shift to Land Empires in Asia 662 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Education and the Rise of an African and Asian Middle Class 668 Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870--1914 670 Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change 673 DOCUMENT: Contrary Images: The Colonizer Versus the Colonized on the "Civilizing Mission" 674 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Capitalism and Colonialism 677 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: A European-Dominated Early Phase of Globalization 682 Further Readings 682 On the Web 683 CHAPTER 30 The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830--1920 684 From Colonies to Nations 685 New Nations Confront Old and New Problems 689 Latin American Economies and World Markets, 1820--1870 692 DOCUMENT: Confronting the Hispanic Heritage: From Independence to Consolidation 698 Societies in Search of Themselves 701 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Explaining Underdevelopment 704 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Images of the Spanish-American War 706 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: New Latin American Nations and the World 708 Further Readings 710 On the Web 710 CHAPTER 31 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China 712 From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey 713 Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands 717 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Western Dominance and the Decline of Civilizations 718 The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China 723 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Mapping the Decline of Civilizations 724 DOCUMENT: Transforming Imperial China into a Nation 732 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Muslim and Chinese Decline and a Shifting Global Balance 733 Further Readings 734 On the Web 734 CHAPTER 32 Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West 736 Russia's Reforms and Industrial Advance 737 DOCUMENT: Conditions for Factory Workers in Russia's Industrialization 742 Protest and Revolution in Russia 743 Japan: Transformation Without Revolution 746 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Separate Paths of Japan and China 748 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Two Faces ofWestern Influence 751 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Russia and Japan in the World 754 Further Readings 754 On the Web 755 PART VI THE NEWEST STAGE OFWORLD HISTORY: 1914--PRESENT 760 CHAPTER 33 Descent into the Abyss:World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order 770 The Coming of the Great War 772 A World at War 775 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Trench Warfare 776 Failed Peace and Global Turmoil 782 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page viii Contents ix The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order 783 DOCUMENT: Lessons for the Colonized from the Slaughter in the Trenches 784 THINKING HISTORICALLY:Women in Asian and African Nationalist Movements 792 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS:World War and Global Upheavals 795 Further Readings 795 On the Web 796 CHAPTER 34 The World between the Wars: Revolutions, Depression, and Authoritarian Response 798 The Roaring Twenties 799 Revolution: The First Waves 804 THINKING HISTORICALLY: A Century of Revolutions 810 The Global Great Depression 817 The Authoritarian Response 820 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Guernica and the Images of War 823 DOCUMENT: Socialist Realism 828 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Economic Depression, Authoritarian Response, and Democratic Retreat 830 Further Readings 831 On the Web 832 CHAPTER 35 A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order 834 Old and New Causes of a Second World War 835 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Total War, Global Devastation 837 Unchecked Aggression and the Coming of War in Europe and the Pacific 838 The Conduct of a Second Global War 840 DOCUMENT: Japan's Defeat in a Global War 847 War's End and the Emergence of the Superpower Standoff 848 Nationalism and Decolonization in South and Southeast Asia and Africa 849 VISUALIZING THE PAST: National Leaders for a New Global Order 852 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Persisting Trends in a World Transformed by War 857 Further Readings 857 On the Web 858 CHAPTER 36 Western Society and Eastern Europe in the Decades of the Cold War 860 After World War II: A New International Setting for the West 860 The Resurgence of Western Europe 864 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The United States and Western Europe: Convergence and Complexity 868 Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand 870 Culture and Society in the West 872 VISUALIZING THE PAST:Women at Work in France and the United States 874 Eastern Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empire 878 Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutions 881 DOCUMENT: A Cold War Speech 886 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Cold War and the World 887 Further Readings 887 On the Web 888 CHAPTER 37 Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st Century 890 Latin America After World War II 892 Radical Options in the 1950s 894 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Murals and Posters: Art and Revolution 895 DOCUMENT: The People Speak 898 The Search for Reform and the Military Option 898 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Human Rights in the 20th Century 902 Societies in Search of Change 905 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Struggling Toward the Future in a Global Economy 909 Further Readings 910 On the Web 910 CHAPTER 38 Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence 912 The Challenges of Independence 913 DOCUMENT: Cultural Creativity in the Emerging Nations: Some Literary Samples 921 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Artificial Nations and the Rising Tide of Communal Strife 922 Post-Colonial Options for Achieving Economic Growth and Social Justice 924 Delayed Revolutions: Religious Revivalism and Liberation Movements in Settler Societies 930 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Globalization and Postcolonial Societies 935 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Postcolonial Nations in the Cold War World Order 935 Further Readings 936 On the Web 936 CHAPTER 39 Rebirth and Revolution: Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim 938 East Asia in the Postwar Settlements 939 The Pacific Rim:More Japans? 946 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Pacific Rim Growth 948 THINKING HISTORICALLY: The Pacific Rim as a U.S. Policy Issue 950 Mao's China: Vanguard of World Revolution? 951 DOCUMENT:Women in the Revolutionary Struggles for Social Justice 956 Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam 958 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: East Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Contemporary World 963 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page ix x Contents Further Readings 964 On the Web 964 CHAPTER 40 Power, Politics, and Conflict in World History, 1990--2010 966 The End of the Cold War 967 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Symbolism in the Breakdown of the Soviet Bloc 974 The Spread of Democracy 975 DOCUMENT: Democratic Protest and Repression in China 976 The Great Powers and New Disputes 977 The United States as Sole Superpower 980 THINKING HISTORICALLY: Terrorism, Then and Now 982 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: New Global Standards, New Divisions 984 Further Readings 984 On the Web 986 CHAPTER 41 Globalization and Resistance 988 Globalization: Causes and Processes 989 DOCUMENT: Protests Against Globalization 996 Resistance and Alternatives 998 THINKING HISTORICALLY: How Much Historical Change? 999 The Global Environment 1000 VISUALIZING THE PAST: Two Faces of Globalization 1003 Toward the Future 1005 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Civilizations and Global Forces 1006 Further Readings 1006 On the Web 1007 Glossary G-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1 7135A01_FM01.qxp_jm 10/12/09 10:14 AM Page x
Peter N. Stearns Peter N. Stearns is provost and professor of history at George Mason University. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. Before moving to George Mason University, he taught at Rutgers University, the University of Chicago, and Carnegie Mellon, where he won the Robert Doherty Educational Leadership Award and the Elliott Dunlap Smith Teaching Award. He has taught world history for more than 15 years. He currently serves as chair of the Advanced Placement World History Committee and also founded and is the editor of the Journal of Social History. In addition to textbooks and readers, he has written studies of gender and consumerism in a world history context. Other books address modern social and cultural history and include studies on gender, old age, work, dieting, and emotion. His most recent book in this area is American Fear: Causes and Consequences of High Anxiety. Michael Adas Michael Adas is the Abraham Voorhees Professor of History and a board of governor's chair at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Over the past couple of decades his teaching has focused on patterns and processes of global and comparative history. His courses on race and empire in the early modern and industrial eras and on world history in the 20th century have earned him a number of teaching prizes. In addition to texts on world history, Adas has written mainly on the comparative history of colonialism and its impact on the peoples and societies of Asia and Africa. His books include Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance, which won the Dexter Prize, and the recently published Dominance by Design: Technological Imperatives and America's Civilizing Mission. He is currently writing a global history of the First World War. Stuart B. Schwartz Stuart B. Schwartz was born and educated in Springfield, Massachusetts, and then attended Middlebury College and the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico. He has an M.A. and Ph.D. from Columbia University in Latin American history. He taught for many years at the University of Minnesota and joined the faculty at Yale University in 1996. He has also taught in Brazil, Puerto Rico, Spain, France, and Portugal. He is a specialist on the history of colonial Latin America, especially Brazil, and is the author of numerous books, notably Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society (1985), which won the Bolton Prize for the best book in Latin American History. He is also the author of Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels (1992), Early Latin America(1983), and Victors and Vanquished (1999). He has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton). For his work on Brazil he was recently decorated by the Brazilian government. He continues to read widely in the history and anthropology of Latin America, Africa, and early modern Europe. Marc Jason Gilbert Marc Jason Gilbert is the holder of an NEHsupported Chair in World History at Hawaii Pacific University in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is a former University System of Georgia Distinguished Professor of Teaching and Learning. He received his Ph.D in history in 1978 at UCLA, where he built his own program in world history out of a mixture of more traditional fields. He is a founding member of the World History Association and one of its initial elected officers.More than a decade ago, he founded and served as executive director of the Southeastern World History Association. He has codirected two Summer Institutes for Teaching Advanced Placement World History. He has attempted to bring a global dimension to the study of south and southeast Asian history in numerous articles and books, such as Why the North Won the Vietnam War.